Analysts have developed scenarios for future changes in greenhouse gas emissions that are stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. [62] Climate models suggest that lower stabilization levels are linked to lower magnitudes of future global warming, while higher stabilization levels are linked to higher magnitudes of future global warming (see chart opposite). [60] UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon called on world leaders to agree on controlling global warming at the 69th session of the UN General Assembly on 23 September 2014 in New York. The next climate summit was held in Paris in 2015, the date of the Paris Agreement, which succeeded the Kyoto Protocol. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements. Although the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily monitor the progress of individual nations and promote a sense of overall group pressure, discouraging any towing of feet among countries that might consider it. To avoid major changes in life as we know it, global action is needed. That is why the Paris Agreement, which aims to limit global warming, rises to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century. In fact, the seemingly small difference between 1.5 and 2 degrees could have dramatic consequences on deep nations and coral reefs. An important indicator of progress in stabilizing emissions is the level of increase in emissions from each country from year to year – their incremental emissions.

It is clear that the greatest impact on climate stabilization will be that the largest incremental emitters stabilize their emissions. But the more we go into the decade of the 1990s without stabilization, the more difficult it will be to achieve the internationally recognized voluntary goal (The World Bank, 1995). The World Bank calculated incremental emissions for 1986-91 by adapting a linear trend to CDIAC emissions data. Where the trend was insignificant, the increment was zeroed. This process has been repeated for both individual national data and total global emissions. Gupta et al. (2007) [69] also examined the 450 ppm projected scenarios for non-Annex I parts. Non-Annex I emissions are projected to be reduced in several regions (Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia and Central Asia) to be significantly reduced under the “business-as-usual” by 2020. [69] Business-as-usuals are not projected in Schedule I in the absence of new emission control measures. Emissions in all regions outside Annex I are projected to be significantly reduced by 2050 under the “business-as-usual” level. [69] Paris Agreement, 2015.