The texts of the TTIP agreement are developed by 24 joint EU-US working groups, each of which examines a separate aspect of the agreement. Development typically takes place in several phases. First, broad position papers are exchanged, outlining the objectives and ambitions of each party for each aspect. This is followed by text proposals from each party, which are accompanied (in areas such as tariffs and market access) by each party`s “first offer”. These negotiations and draft documents can evolve (modify) at the different stages of their development. When both parties are ready, a consolidated text will be prepared, with the remaining differences from the discussion expressed in square brackets. These texts are then provisionally closed at the thematic level, since a working consensus is reached. However, the agreement is being negotiated as a whole, so the text of the topic is not finalized until full consensus has been reached. [62] The decision to relaunch transatlantic trade negotiations is therefore intended to prevent Trump from exercising his threat of a 20% increase in tariffs on imports of cars and spare parts, with the United States accounting for 30% of European car exports (depending on their value).

In Europe, for example, critics have argued that the EU needs to reduce certain standards, such as allowing the import of genetically modified foods – illegal in the EU – to continue negotiations with the US. The majority of major U.S. crops contain genetically modified organisms, and excluding these products from export markets would weigh on U.S. farmers and food producers. EU officials have categorically denied that the EU will lower its standards for a trade deal. While he seemed to get along well with the last President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, in discussing the idea of zero tariffs, zero non-tariff barriers and zero subsidies, no real progress has been made. Trump also backed Brexit, saying he wanted to prioritize a trade deal between the US and Britain, which further angered the EU. Negotiations were supposed to be completed by the end of 2014, but according to economist Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, there were at least four or five more years of negotiations left by the end of this year. [66] In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the agreement unless the United States lifted the visa requirement for Bulgarian citizens. [67] A structural problem related to the U.S.

deficit results in particular from Chinese trade distortions, starting with the opacity of Chinese subsidies to state-owned enterprises. . . .